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Thandizo Pansi Ndi Konkire Yopopera

Mtundu watsopano wa konkire wopopera womwe umagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi miyala yolumikizidwa yoluka ndi simenti yokhala ndi zowonjezera zowonjezera kuti kuuma kwa konkriti wapangidwa ku Europe.

Wodziwika kuti "shotcrete" wapeza kuwonjezeka kwa ntchito ngati njira yothandizira pansi pofukula pansi pa nthaka ku Europe ndi North America.

Kugwiritsa ntchito kwake m'migodi yapansi pantchito kwakhala koyeserera kwambiri. Zinapezeka kuti zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo mwa njira zachilendo zothandizila nthaka pansi pazoyenda pansi panthaka koma kuti munthawi zovuta, monga talc schist ndi mvula yambiri, sizinatheke kuyigwiritsa ntchito bwino.

Kugwiritsa ntchito shotcrete ngati njira yothandizira pansi pamigodi yapansi panthaka ikuyembekezeka kuwonjezeka. Simenti wopopera wokhala ndi mitundu ya zowonjezera ya pulasitiki ikuchitika yomwe ingawonjezere kuchuluka kwa momwe akugwiritsidwira ntchito. Konkire wothira wothandizirana ndi mauna amatawuni akupeza kale ntchito zokumba zakale.

Kugwiritsa ntchito Shotcrete

Panali njira ziwiri zosakanizira chosakanizira chophatikizika, chomwe ndi kusakaniza konyowa ndi kusakanikirana kouma kumaphatikizapo kusakaniza zida zonse za konkriti ndi madzi komanso kupopera chisakanizo chakuda kudzera payipi yoperekera ku mphuno, pomwe mpweya wowonjezera umawonjezeredwa zakuthupi zimapopera pamwamba pake. Njira yowuma-xix imalola kuyambitsa kosavuta kwa ma accelerator nthawi zambiri zimasakanikirana ndi madzi osungunuka, motero kufulumizitsa njira yothira madzi. Ma accelerator apangidwa omwe amathandiza konkriti kuti izitha kutsatira miyala ndikukhazikika pansi pamadzi ambiri.

Makina osakanikirana sanapangidwebe mpaka pomwe amatha kuthana ndi zigawo zazikulu kuposa 3/4 mkati. Makina amtunduwu amagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka pobisalira pansi panthaka m'malo mothandizidwa ndi nthaka yosauka. Amachine amtunduwu ndi Gun-All Model H yoona, yogawidwa ndi kampani yamagetsi, ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pobisalira pansi pomwe pobentcha konkire mpaka 2in. wandiweyani ndikukhala ndi gawo limodzi la 1/2 mkati. kukula kwakukulu kumafunikira kuti muwume pang'ono.

Ntchito Yothandizira ya Shortcrete

Shotcrete itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati kapangidwe kazinthu kapena ngati zosagwirizana ndi zomangamanga. Zofooka pamiyala yapulasitiki ndi dothi lopanda mgwirizano zimafuna kukhazikika kolimba, koyenera kuti nthaka isamasuke ndikulowa poyambira. Izi zitha kuchitika pogwiritsa ntchito shotcrete 4 kapena kuposa mainchesi.

M'miyala yolondola kwambiri, itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito polumikizira mafupa ndikuthyola miyala ing'onoing'ono yomwe imayambitsa mavuto amiyala ndi zolephera. Mkombero umagwiritsidwa ntchito 2 mpaka 4 mkati. Wandiweyani pamiyala yolimba kuti mudzaze ming'alu ndi mabowo kuti apange malo athyathyathya ndikuthana ndi zovuta, pamafunika pong'onoting'ono kokha pamalo osalala. Pankhaniyi, matrix okhala ndi konkire yolimba kwambiri amakhala ngati guluu wogwirizira makiyi ndi mphete zomwe zimagwirizira miyala ikuluikulu ndipo pamapeto pake chimangirocho. Kugwiritsa ntchito kotereku ndikofala ku Sweden, komwe mapangidwe a ma tunnel othandizira a shotcrete ndi otchuka kwambiri chifukwa chothandiza komanso mtengo wotsika.

Mkombero ungagwiritsidwenso ntchito ngati pepala laling'ono kuti muteteze miyala yomwe yatulukidwa kumene kuti isawonongeke ndikuwonongeka ndi mpweya ndi madzi. Mwa mawonekedwe awa, ndikumangirira kosalekeza kosalekeza komwe kupsinjika kwamlengalenga kungakhale ngati chithandizo.

Kuyerekeza kwa Gunite ndi Shotcrete

Coarse-aggregate shotcrete imasiyana ndi mfuti zosakanikirana zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito poti shotcrete ndi konkriti weniweni wokhala ndi miyala (mpaka 1.25) pamiyala yonse, pomwe mfuti nthawi zambiri imakhala matope amchenga wa simenti. Shotcrete imasiyana ndi mfuti pakugwiritsa ntchito ndikugwira ntchito motere:

1) Mfuti imapanga chivundikiro chaching'ono pamwala, koma shotcrete ikagwiritsidwa ntchito ikangotha ​​kuphulika imapatsa chisindikizo ndikuthandizira kukhazikika kwa mwala watsopano. Chingwe cholimba cha rockcrete chimaganiziridwa kuti chimakhala chifukwa chakuchita kwa ma admixtures othamangitsa omwe samalola konkriti kuti ichoke pamiyala ndikuwoneka kwa tinthu tating'onoting'ono tating'onoting'ono tating'ono tating'ono makina achidule ogwiritsidwa ntchito.

2) Shotcrete imagwiritsa ntchito gulu lalikulu (mpaka 1.25 mu) lomwe limatha kusakanizidwa ndi simenti ndi mchenga pazinyontho zake zomwe zimakhalapo popanda kuyanika kwamtengo wapatali komwe kumafunikira ndi mfuti. Itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito pakukula mpaka 6 mkati. Chifukwa chake chowomberacho chimakhala chilimbikitso cholimba komanso chokhazikika pakhonde lotseguka.

3) Ma admixtures othamangitsa omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito poponyera mathandizo kuti athandizire kulumikizana ndi thanthwe, ngakhale chowomberacho chitha kukhala chofooka kuposa konkriti wamba wofanana osakanikirana koma osafulumira kwenikweni. Imakhala yopanda madzi ndipo imadziwika ndi mphamvu zoyambirira (pafupifupi 200 psi mu ola limodzi), osati chifukwa cha ma admixtures okha komanso chifukwa cha kukanika komwe kumalandiridwa kuchokera kuma velocities a 250-500ft. pa mphindi. ndi kuchuluka kwa madzi / simenti (pafupifupi 0.35). Shotcrete, yokhala ndi zowonjezera zowonjezera, imatha kusintha thanthwe lamphamvu yaying'ono kukhala yolimba, ndipo ofooka amiyala ya pulasitiki omwe amathiridwa ndi iyo amatha kukhala okhazikika ndi mainchesi ochepa chabe a shotcrete. Chifukwa cha kukwawa kwake, shotcrete imatha kukhala ndi mapindikidwe atha miyezi kapena zaka osalephera polimbana.

 


Post nthawi: Jul-02-2021
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